This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B.
Students Dust off those Bic ballpoints and college-ruled notebooks — research shows that taking notes by hand is better than taking notes on a laptop for remembering conceptual information over the long term.
The findings are published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. Laptops in class have been controversial, due mostly to the many opportunities for distraction that they provide online shopping, browsing Reddit, or playing solitaire, just to name a few.
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But few studies have examined how effective laptops are for the students who diligently take notes. Mueller was prompted to investigate the question after her own experience of switching from laptop to pen and paper as a graduate teaching assistant: He was taking notes on his computer, and looked up and realized that he had no idea what the person was actually talking about.
In the first study, 65 college students watched one of five TED Talks covering topics that were interesting but not common knowledge.
The students, who watched the talks in small groups, were either given laptops disconnected from Internet or notebooks, and were told to use whatever strategy they normally used to take notes.
The students then completed three distractor tasks, including a taxing working memory task. A full 30 minutes later, they had to answer factual-recall questions e. The results revealed that while the two types of note-takers performed equally well on questions that involved recalling facts, laptop note-takers performed significantly worse on the conceptual questions.
The notes from laptop users contained more words and more verbatim overlap with the lecture, compared to the notes that were written by hand.
Surprisingly, the researchers saw similar results even when they explicitly instructed the students to avoid taking verbatim notes, suggesting that the urge to do so when typing is hard to overcome. The researchers also found that longhand note takers still beat laptop note takers on recall one week later when participants were given a chance to review their notes before taking the recall test.
Once again, the amount of verbatim overlap was associated with worse performance on conceptual items.Study Guides and Tips. There's a lot of information to absorb when it comes to studying psychology. Learn about the fundamental theories, take sample quizzes, and master the inner workings of the mind.
Milgram selected participants for his experiment by newspaper advertising for male participants to take part in a study of learning at Yale University.
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These notes are meant to be used as a review of material presented in a "Psych " course.5/5(2). Social psychology is the study of how humans think about each other and how they relate to each other. Social psychologists study such topics as the influence of others on an individual's behavior (e.g.
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