When The Mermaids Cry:
English cuisine Fish and chips, served in a paper wrapper greaseproof paper inner and ordinary paper outeras a "takeaway" The tradition in England of fish battered and fried in oil may have come from Jewish immigrants from Spain and Portugal.
Early fish-and-chip shops had only very basic facilities. Usually these consisted principally of a large cauldron of cooking fat, heated by a coal fire. The fish-and-chip shop later evolved into a fairly standard format, with the food served, in paper wrappings, to queuing customers, over a counter in front of the fryers.
Bythere were more than 25, fish and chip shops across the country, and in the s there were more than 35, shops. On a single day inthe shop served 10, portions of fish and chips, earning a place in the Guinness Book Of Records.
In the United Kingdom the Food Standards Agency guidance excludes caterers from this;  but several local Trading Standards authorities and others do say it cannot be sold merely as "fish and chips".
Charles Dickens mentions a "fried fish warehouse" in Oliver Twistfirst published inwhile in the north of England a trade in deep-fried chipped potatoes developed. A Jewish immigrant, Joseph Malin, opened the first recorded combined fish-and-chip shop in London in or in ; a Mr Lees pioneered the concept in the North of England, in Mossleyin The restaurants were carpeted, had table service, tablecloths, flowers, china and cutlery, and made the trappings of upmarket dining affordable to the working classes for the first time.
Menus were expanded in the early 20th century to include meat dishes and other variations as their popularity grew to a total of thirty restaurants. A glimpse of the old Brighton restaurant at No.
Irish cuisine In Irelandthe first fish and chips were sold by an Italian immigrant, Giuseppe Cervi, who mistakenly stepped off an North American-bound ship at Queenstown now Cobh in County Cork in the s and walked all the way to Dublin.
His wife Palma would ask customers "Uno di questa, uno di quella? New Zealand cuisine Fish and chips are the most popular takeaway food in New Zealand.
Food historians have been unable to pinpoint exactly when the meal became an established part of New Zealand cuisine but all recognise that the first fish and chips shops were introduced by British settlers before World War I. As in Britain, Friday night has been the traditional night to eat fish.
With the decline of the newspaper industry, this has become less common. Infour up-and-coming Labour Party politicians, including David Langewere nicknamed the "Fish and Chip Brigade" due to a picture published at the time with the group eating fish and chips.
Cuisine of the United States In the United States, the dish is most commonly sold as "fish and chips", except in Upstate New York and Wisconsin and other parts of the Northeast and Upper Midwestwhere this dish would be called a fish fry. Cooking[ edit ] Frying range Traditional frying uses beef dripping or lard ; however, vegetable oilssuch as peanut oil used because of its relatively high smoke point now [update] predominate.
A minority of vendors in the North of England and Scotlandand the majority of vendors in Northern Irelandstill use dripping or lard, as it imparts a different flavour to the dish, but this makes the fried chips unsuitable for vegetarians and for adherents of certain faiths. Lard is used in some living industrial history museums, such as the Black Country Living Museum.
Thickness[ edit ] Fish and chips at a Hesburger fast food restaurant, advertised as particularly English British and Irish chips are usually thicker than American-style French fries sold by major multinational fast food chains, resulting in a lower fat content per portion.
In their homes or in some restaurants, people in or from the United States may eat a thick type of chip, more similar to the British and Irish variant, sometimes referred to as steak fries. Other recipes may use beer or milk batter, where these liquids are often substitutes for water.
The carbon dioxide in the beer lends a lighter texture to the batter.
Beer also results in an orange-brown colour.The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) is dedicated to scientific discovery – exploring fundamental biology, understanding biodiversity and the environment, and informing the human condition through research and education.
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