Farewell, Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
Unlike the American political system [ click here ] and the British political system [ click here ] which essentially have existed in their current form for centuries, the Indian political system is a much more recent construct dating from India's independence from Britain in The current constitution came into force on 26 January and advocates the trinity of justice, liberty and equality for all citizens.
The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world, containing articles, 12 schedules and 98 amendments, with somewords in its English language version. In stark contrast with the current constitution of Japan which has remained unchanged [ click here ], the constitution of India has been one of the most amended national documents in the world with 98 changes in just over 70 years.
Many of these amendments have resulted from a long-running dispute involving the Parliament and the Supreme Court over the rights of parliamentary sovereignty as they clash with those of judicial review of laws and constitutional amendments.
India's lower house, the Lok Sabha, is modelled on the British House of Commons, but its federal system of government borrows from the experience of the Indian politics in hindi States, Canada and Australia. While the framers of the Indian constitution certainly had in mind this Anglo-Saxon idea of federalism, historically the central government has dominated over the regional states.
The Constitution actually refers to India as a "Union of states" and perhaps a better term - which is also used in the mainstream media - is quasi-federal system. This is normally a ceremonial role, originally modelled on the British monarch to "advise, encourage and warn" the elected government on constitutional matters.
The President can return a Parliamentary Bill once for reconsideration and, in times of crisis such as a hung Parliament, the role is pivotal.
The President can declare a state of emergency which enables the Lok Sabha to extend its life beyond the normal five-year term.
As members of an electoral college, nearly 5, members of the national parliament and state legislators are eligible to vote in the election of the President. The current President is Ram Nath Kovind, a member of the dalit untouchable caste.
There is also the post of Vice-President who is elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of both houses of parliament. The Vice-President chairs the upper house called the Rajya Sabha.
The head of the government is the Prime Minister who is appointed by the President on the nomination of the majority party in the lower house or Lok Sabha. Ministers are then appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister and these ministers collectively comprise the Council of Ministers.
As set out in the Constitution, the maximum size of the Lok Sabha is members, made up of up to members representing people from the states of India, up to 20 members representing people from the Union Territories, and two members to represent the Anglo-Indian community if it does not have adequate representation in the house according to the President.
Currently the size of the house is - made up of elected from the states, 13 elected from the territories, and two nominated from the Anglo-Indian community.
By far the largest state representation is that of Uttar Pradesh with 80 members. At the other end of the scale, three states have only one representative each. There are certain constituencies where only candidates from scheduled casts and scheduled tribes are allowed to stand.
Each member - except the two nominated ones - represents a geographical single-member constituency as in the British model for the House of Commons.
Each Lok Sabha is formed for a five year term, after which it is automatically dissolved, unless extended by a Proclamation of Emergency which may extend the term in one year increments. This has happened on three occasions:Feb 24, · Narendra Modi and the future of Indian politics 24 February Author: Amitabh Mattoo, University of Melbourne.
When India opted for constitutional democracy in , few gave it much of a chance. Get India news from Indian publications on timberdesignmag.com News from NDTV, Times of India, India Today, The Hindu, timberdesignmag.com Get news in Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Telugu.
Structure of Government of India The Government in India or the central or the union government is divided into three main sections namely the executive, legislature and the judiciary shown as under.
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Indian Politics In Hindi. the Panchayati Raj system has several administrative functions and authorities. For most of the years since independence, the federal government has been led by the Indian National Congress (INC). The two largest political parties have been the .