For this, I find it very ironic that the turning point in our country's march to distinct nationhood was actually achieved during a bloody battle in World War I, infamously known as the battle of Vimy Ridge. It was in this victory that many Canadians, and historians since, argue was the key to making Canada a nation.
Hooge in World War I Minor operations took place in the Ypres salient insome being German initiatives to distract the Allies from the preparations for the offensive at Verdun and later attempts to divert Allied resources from the Battle of the Somme.
Other operations were begun by the British to regain territory or to evict the Germans from ground overlooking their positions.
There was much trench mortaring, mining and raiding by both sides and from January to May, the Second Army had 20, casualties.
In May, reinforcements began arriving to Flanders from the south; the II Corps headquarters and 17 divisions had arrived by the end of the month. The commanders agreed on a strategy of simultaneous attacks, to overwhelm the Central Powers on the WesternEastern and Italian fronts, by the first fortnight of February Western Front World War I and Nivelle Offensive Nivelle planned an operation in three parts, with preliminary offensives Battle of vimy ridge canada essay pin German reserves by the British at Arras and the French between the Somme and the Oisethen a French breakthrough offensive on the Aisnefollowed by pursuit and exploitation.
The plan was welcomed by Haig but with some reservations, which he addressed on 6 January. Nivelle agreed to a proviso that if the first two parts of the operation failed to lead to a breakthrough, the operations would be stopped so that the British could move their forces north for the Flanders offensive, which Haig stressed was of great importance to the British government.
On 21 March, he wrote to Nivelle that it would take two months to prepare the attacks from Messines to Steenstraat but that the Messines attack could be ready in 5—6 weeks. The Nivelle Offensive took place from 9 April to 9 May and failed to achieve a breakthrough.
On 16 May, Haig wrote that he had divided the Flanders operation into two phases, one to take Messines Ridge and the main attack several weeks later. Even a partial success would improve the tactical situation in the Ypres salient, reducing wastage, which was exceptional, even in quiet periods.
After a brief period of success from 1 to 19 July, the Russian offensive was contained by the German and Austro-Hungarian armies, which counter-attacked and forced the Russian armies to retreat.
On the Baltic coast from 1 to 5 Septemberthe Germans attacked with their strategic reserve of six divisions and captured Riga. The British and French commanders on the Western Front had to reckon on the German western army Westheer being strengthened by reinforcements from the Ostheer on the Eastern Front by late The rises are slight, apart from the vicinity of Zonnebekewhich has a gradient of 1: From Hooge and further east, the slope is 1: West of Messines Ridge is the parallel Wulverghem Spanbroekmolen Spur and on the east side, the Oosttaverne Spur, which is also parallel to the main ridge.
The general aspect south and east of Ypres, is one of low ridges and dips, gradually flattening northwards beyond Passchendaele, into a featureless plain. An occupier also has the advantage that artillery deployments and the movement of reinforcements, supplies and stores can be screened from view.
The ridge had woods from Wytschaete to Zonnebeke giving good cover, some being of notable size, like Polygon Wood and those later named Battle Wood, Shrewsbury Forest and Sanctuary Wood.
The main road to Ypres from Poperinge to Vlamertinge is in a defile, easily observed from the ridge.
A century ago, roads in the area were unpaved, except for the main ones from Ypres, with occasional villages and houses dotted along them. The lowland west of the ridge, was a mixture of meadow and fields, with high hedgerows dotted with trees, cut by streams and a network of drainage ditches emptying into canals.
The coastal strip is sandy but a short way into the hinterland, the ground rises towards the Vale of Ypres, which before was a flourishing market garden.
Gradients vary from negligible, to 1: Since much of the drainage had been destroyed, though some parts were restored by land drainage companies from England.
Progress on roads, rail lines, railheads and spurs in the Second Army zone was continuous and by mid, gave the area the most efficient supply system of the BEF.
In earlythe importance of the capture of the Gheluvelt plateau for an advance further north was emphasised by Haig and the army commanders.
He suggested that the southern attack from St Yves to Mont Sorrel should come first and that Mont Sorrel to Steenstraat should be attacked within 48—72 hours. After discussions with Rawlinson and Plumer and the incorporation of Haig's changes, Macmullen submitted his memorandum on 14 February.+ free ebooks online.
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Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. One of Canada’s largest military endeavors was the battle of Vimy Ridge during World War One.
It was a fierce battle between Germans and Canadians. Canada was trying to take over the German controlled ridge, which ran from northwest to southwest between Lens and Arras, France. The Tone and Style of Ralph Ellison's Battle Royal - A short analysis of the major theme found in Ellison’s Battle Royal, supported by a literary criticism dealing with the tone and style of the story.
Antiquarian Books: An Essay on Medals or An Introduction to the Knowledge of Ancient Modern Coins & Medals; Especially those of Greece, Rome & Britain by J Pinkerton, 3rd edition Vol 1 , pgs, plus 3 plates.
A piece in the Globe and Mail on the Zuckerberg hearings: The era of Big Tech self-governance has come to an end.
Twenty years ago, another young Silicon Valley tycoon was . St Edmundsbury in the early Twentieth Century. Find out about our local history to